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Battery Management Systems

Battery Management Systems

To maximise the life of batteries, it isrecommendedthatallbatterypowered electric vehicles include a BMS,thepurposeofwhich is tomake sure the batteries remainswithintheiridealworkingparameters. Some battery chemistries (suchasleadacid)are fairlytolerant of abuse, but all batteriesbenefitfromhavinga BMS, andit will pay for itself with longerbatterylife.Lithiumand NiMHboth require a BMS for safetyreasons,asthey canbe damagedif overcharged or overheated.

Some typical functions of battery management systemsinclude:

*      Charge balancing, to make sure all cells finishchargingatthesametime and to prevent damage throughovercharging.

*      Active balancing, where energy is divertedfromstrongercellstoweaker cells, to make sure all cellsreachtheirmaximumdischargepoint at the same time.

*      Temperature monitoring, to avoid damage duetooverheating.SomeBMSesmay also control a heater to bringcoldbatteries up toabetterworking temperature.

*      Low-voltage cut-off, a means of isolating thebatterypackwhenanycell reaches it's minimum recommended voltage,toavoiddamagedueto over-discharging.
State-Of-Charge monitoring for all cells,throughvoltageandcurrentmonitoring the remaining capacity ofeachcellmaybecalculated.

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