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Battery electric vehicle

Batteryelectric vehicle

For electric vehicles other than battery powered road vehicles, seeelectricvehicle.

For passenger electric vehicles, see Electric car.

Citroën Berlingo Electrique vans of the ELCIDIS goods distribution service inLa Rochelle, France

The battery electric vehicle, or BEV, is a type ofelectric vehicle (EV) thatuses chemical energy storedin rechargeable batterypacks.

As with other electricvehicles, BEVs use electricmotors and motorcontrollers instead of internal combustion engines (ICEs) forpropulsion.

All-electric and hybrid electric vehicles

Vehicles using both electric motors and ICEs are examples of hybrid electric vehicles, and are notconsidered pure (or all) EVs because they operate in acharge-sustainingmode.

  • Regular hybrid electric vehicles cannot be externallycharged.
  • Hybrid vehicles with batteries that can be charged externally todisplace some or all of their ICE power and gasoline fuel are called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and are BEVs during their charge-depleting mode.

All-electric and plug-in hybrids are off-vehicle charge capable(“OVCC” or pluginable), which means having the capability to chargea battery from anoff-vehicle electric energy source that cannot be connected orcoupled to the vehicle in any manner while the vehicle is beingdriven [1].


The concept of battery electric vehicles is to chargebatteries on board vehiclesfor propulsion using the electricgrid.

The main advantages of battery electric vehicles are that:

1.      No pollutants are emitted directly by the vehicle potentiallyreducing urban pollution. This does not take into accountadditional pollutants that are emitted if any fossil fuel powerplant is used to create the electricity, though a centralizedpollution source can be dealt with more easily.

2.      Gasoline is indirectly replaced by whatever is being used togenerate domestic electricity, reducing dependence on foreigncommodities. The electricalenergy stored within the battery can be generated by anysource, including renewable, nuclear, natural gas, coal andpetroleum.

Battery electric cars are becoming more and more attractive withthe advancement of new battery technology (Lithium Ion) that have higher power andenergy density (i.e.greater possible acceleration and more range with less batteries)and higher oil prices.[2]

BEVs include automobiles,light trucks, andneighborhood electricvehicles.

Electric bus

Further information: Electricbus


A battery-electric minibus in St Helens, England

At 2008 fuel prices, battery powered buses are more economical thandiesel or gasoline powered buses. The additional cost of thebatteries is made up for by the low operating cost in the firsthalf of the typical million to two million mile (three millionkilometer) life of the bus.

Chattanooga, Tennessee operates nine free (no fares) electric buses, which have been inoperation since 1992 and have carried 11.3 million passengers andcovered a distance of 1.9 million miles. They were made locally byAdvanced Vehicle Systems. Two of these buses were used for the 1996Atlanta Olympics.[3][4]

Wrightbus has a new a hybrid-electric driveline for the StreetCar RTV whichhas been developed in conjunction with the ISE Corporationof California and incorporates Siemens ELFA traction components and a Cummins ISLengine. The chassis is built to Wright Group specifications bySwiss trolleybus specialists Carosserie Hess and is powered byValence Technology lithiumphosphate batteries .

Beginning in the summer of 2000, Hong Kong airport began operatinga 16-passenger Mitsubishi Rosa electric shuttle bus, and in thefall of 2000, New York City began testing a 66 passenger batterypowered school bus, an all electric version of the Blue-BirdTC2000A similar bus was operated in NapaValley, California for 14 months ending in April,2004

The 2008 BeijingOlympics used a fleet of 50 electric buses, which have a rangeof 130 km (81 mi) with the air conditioning on. They useLithium-ion batteries, and consume about 1 kWh/mile. The buseswere designed by the Beijing Institute of Technology and built bythe Jinghua Coach Co. Ltd.[7] The batteries are replaced with fully charged ones atthe recharging station to allow 24 hour operation of thebuses.[8]

Smith Electric Vehicles, the world’s largest manufacturer ofelectric vans and trucks.

Free Tindo

Tindo is an all-electric bus from Adelaide, Australia. The Tindo (aboriginal word for sun) is made by Designline Internationalin New Zealand and gets its electricity from a solarPV system on Adelaide's central bus station.Rides are free as part of Adelaide's public transport system.[

Semi tractor- trailer

The Port of Los Angeles and South Coast Air Quality Management District have demonstrated ashort-range heavy-duty all electric truck capable of hauling afully loaded 40-foot (12 m) cargo container. The currentdesign is capable of pulling a 60,000 lb (27,000 kg)cargo container at speeds up to 40 mph (64 km/h) and hasa range of between 30 and 60 miles (97 km). It gets 2 kWhper mile, compared to 5 miles per gallon for the hostler semi tractors it replaces.

Milk float


A Dairy Crest Smith's Elizabethan milk float

A common example of the battery electric vehicle is themilk float. Since it makesmany stops in delivering milk it is more practical to use anelectric vehicle than an ICE, which would be idling much of thetime; it also reduced noise in residential areas. For most of the20th century, the majority of the world's battery electric roadvehicles were British milk floats.[

Garbage truck

With a similar driving pattern of a delivery vehicle like the milkfloat above, garbage trucks are excellent candidates for electricdrive. Most of their time is spent stopping, starting or idling.These activities are where internalcombustion engines are their least efficient. Inpreparation for the 2008 Olympic Games, 3,000 of the internalcombustion engine garbage trucks in Beijing were replaced with lithium ionpolymer Pickup trucks

ZX40ST Electric Truck

In early 2009, PhoenixMotorcars will be shipping a test fleet of theirall-electric SUT (Sports Utility Truck) to Maui. One of the surviving electric vehicles from the late 1990s is theChevy S-10 electric pickuptruck. Many other vehicles from this era, such as theGeneral Motors EV1 wererecalled and destroyed. A newcomer is the Miles Electric Vehicles ZX40ST electrictruck now available in the United States. Miles Electric Vehiclesis based in Santa Monica, California.[17]

Electric cars

Main article: Electriccar

Electric trolleys

Main article: CaterMetroTrolley


Main article: Electrathon

Electric motorcycles and scooters

Electric bicycles

Electric bicycles



Fuel use in vehicle designs

Vehicle type

Fuel used

All-petroleum vehicle

Mostuse of petroleum

Regular hybrid electric vehicle

Lessuse of petroleum, but non-pluginable

Plug-in hybrid vehicle

Residualuse of petroleum. More use of electricity


Mostuse of electricity


Main article: Tractionmotor

Electric cars have traditionally used series wound DC motors, aform of brushed DC electricmotor. More recent electric vehicles have made use of avariety of AC motor types,as these are simpler to build and have no brushes that can wearout. These are usually inductionmotors or brushless AC electric motors which use permanent magnets. There are several variations of the permanent magnet motor which offer simpler drive schemes and/or lower cost including the brushless DC electric motor.


Main article: MotorcontrollerThe motor controller regulates the power to the motor, supplyingeither variable pulse width DC or variable frequency variableamplitude AC, depending on the motor type, DC or AC.
Battery electric vehicle

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