Study on the Optimization of Charge
Study on the Optimization of Charge-Discharge Cycle ofElectricVehicle Batteries in the Context ofSingapore
Continuing environmental concerns are moving electric vehiclesintohigh gear of development. Plug-in type electric and hybridvehiclesare expected in the market anytime. The EV battery-chargingloadcan potentially increase the demand on the utilitydistributionsystems considerably. It is desirable that the EVbattery chargingload be contained during system off-peak hourswithout affectingthe peak demand, thus utilizing the low costelectricity forcharging EV. However, a sizable EV load canintroduce a new peak inthe early off-peak period. Optimization ofthe EV charging duringthe low cost off peak period is formulated tominimize the cost ofEV charging in the context of Singapore system. Further, a significant amount remnant EV batterycapacitymay be available in the early evening hours. They may beutilizedto compliment the distribution system if economicallyviable. Theoptimization of EV battery charging and discharging isformulated.The case studies presented show that significant savingis possibleeven at reasonable low levels of EVpenetrations.