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Why do you need a BMS ?

Why do you need a BMS

A battery pack is made from a group of cells, in a perfect world these cells would all charge and discharge equally, in harmony and the BMS would pretty much not be needed or just sit there and do nothing fancy....

Lithium batteries have a voltage range they must be kept within ( varies by chemistry ) , over-charge or over-discharge them and they die a quick death, to prevent you from doing that, the BMS will shut you down if you do something bad or if there is a problem with one or more cells in the pack alerting you to a problem before you do yet more damage.

Not only can a BMS actively cut off the power, it can also " Balance " the cells while charging, this simply means making sure that no single cell ( or parallel group of cells ) is allowed to go over-voltage and will drain energy from the higher voltage cell(s) to allow the lower voltage cells to catch up.. This, in a way, insures maximum capacity from the pack and prevents cells from drifting apart over time and cycles..

And, sometimes a faulty BMS can itself cause a healthy pack to quit working and even kill cells .. so it's not a perfect world..

some BMS's do " Over-Current Protection " acting like a breaker, they can be reset by disconnecting the pack and reconnecting it while some others will auto-reset once the condition that caused them to " trip " is corrected....

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